# Tag: Elementary Students

## Learning Math with the Abacus

So you’ve all seen an abacus, right?

I thought you might be interested in knowing a little about its history and how it’s used.

So I looked for an article that would do just that and found this one!

Learning Math With Manipulatives — The Abacus

The abacus has been around in various forms for over 2300 years. It was used for various counting and operational tasks. One might even call it the original math manipulative (unless you count fingers and stones). In my younger years, abaci were relegated to the bottom shelf or used as a toy for the kinesthetic kids. These days, abaci can meet the same fate that the abaci of my youth did. The first known abacus, the Salamis tablet, collected dust for over 2100 years. For all those lonely and banished abaci on dusty shelves everywhere, I dedicate this article on how to represent, add and subtract whole and decimal numbers.

As most teachers know, the use of manipulatives by younger elementary students helps them to understand the concepts of place value and operations later on. In my search for a variety of manipulatives to teach number sense, addition and subtraction, I came across a convenient tool in the abacus. I’m sure it was no coincidence that each row on the abacus included exactly ten beads, but there was no operators manual with the abacus I found. When I found an instruction manual several years later, I found that the manufacturer of the abacus saw it as no more than a counting device and had no idea of the place value power inherent in the design.

Representing Numbers With a Dusty Abacus

When I first started using an abacus as a manipulative in math class, I was teaching grade six. In the grade six curriculum, students were supposed to represent whole numbers greater that one million and decimal numbers to thousandths. If you count the number of places from one million down to thousandths, you get ten places. Coincidentally, the abacus had ten rods of ten beads each. I’m sure what I discovered was discovered long ago, and some manufacturers probably even send out better instruction manuals that make note of this, but at the time, it was a completely new discovery.

To make a long story short, I assigned each row a specific place value starting with millions at the top, and thousandths at the bottom. One could use a strip of tape or an indelible marker to label the rows. To represent a number, a student would simply move the number of beads for the value of each place in the number they were given. For example, the number 325,729 was represented by moving three of the hundred thousands beads, two of the ten thousands beads, five of the thousands beads, seven of the hundreds beads, two of the tens beads and nine of the ones beads.

I didn’t have a class set of abaci, so I made up little sketches of an abacus (six or so per page) and students showed representations of numbers using these.

Adding and Subtracting Numbers With a Polished Abacus

Once students are familiar with representing numbers using an abacus, they can move onto adding and subtracting numbers. The idea of adding using an abacus and place value is quite a simple process. Begin by representing the first number. Add the value of each place value in the second and subsequent numbers one at a time beginning with the lowest place value and regroup as necessary.

A variation on addition is to add the second and subsequent numbers from the highest place value to the lowest place value.

Subtracting is much the same as addition, but it involves “removing” beads. The procedure for subtracting is to represent the first number then to subtract the value of each place value in the second and subsequent numbers beginning with the highest place value.

Consider this example, 3.252 – 1.986. The student would first represent 3.252 using the abacus. He would begin by subtracting one one. This is fairly straight forward because there are enough ones available. In the next step, though, the student has to subtract nine tenths from two tenths. He begins by subtracting two of the nine tenths, but he then has to regroup one of the remaining ones into ten tenths. Once he has ten more tenths, he can subtract the remaining seven tenths. He continues by subtracting eight hundredths from five hundredths, and again, he has to regroup, this time, one of the tenths into ten hundredths. The final step also involves regrouping since six thousandths must be subtracted from two thousandths. In the end, the student hopefully ends up with one one, two tenths, six hundredths, and six thousandths (1.266).

Subtraction could also be accomplished by subtracting the lowest place value first, but this sometimes means more manipulations of the beads which means more chance for error.

Conclusion

The use of the abacus takes a little bit of time to master. It is important that the teacher and the students use the correct place value terminology (e.g. “regroup ten hundreds to make one thousand” instead of “turn ten green beads into one blue bead”), so the concepts of place value, addition, and subtraction can be transfered to mental strategies and paper/pencil algorithms. Remember, the best way to dust and polish an abacus is with little fingers!

## New Ways To Learn Math – The Intervention Program

While tutoring is a very good way to help a child learn math, there are other methods which have shown to be successful. The article below by Jim Wheelan is just one of these ways. It’s a quick read – so let me know what you think of this?

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Math Intervention Programs Correct Problems Before They Become Catastrophes

When he struggles with a subject early in school, your child probably will continue struggling with it throughout life. Fortunately, math intervention programs that are targeted toward early elementary students quickly help overcome those roadblocks to learning.

Math Intervention Programs

Math intervention programs aid both the frustrated student and the teacher with tailored instruction in the concepts and application of mathematical theories, rules and processes. The computer-aided learning process combines teaching basic computer skills with introduction and reinforcement of mathematics.

Most math intervention programs include three tiers of learning: Each tier of Response to Intervention (RTI) presents more intensive instruction in alternate ways for which even the most dedicated teacher can rarely find time.

Tier I is the base or benchmark level for students who have only occasional or temporary difficulties absorbing math concepts.

Tier II comprises a strategic level of additional instruction for students who are yet unable to meet their grade-level standards and need more systematic and tightly focused instruction.

Tier III encompasses the most intensive level of instruction. Students who need Tier III RTI tutoring are at risk of failing math: They have underperformed repeatedly and consistently, and they require in-depth, specialized instruction.

Real-Time Performance Monitoring

Your child is never anchored to a math RTI program and left to sink or swim. The teacher receives constant reports on your child’s progress and can assist your child with specific exercises or rephrase and reintroduce specific items or areas needing attention beyond the program parameters. The elementary teacher can access and use redesigned lesson plans that highlight and reinforce topics and processes that enhance the learning process.

Using a Computer versus a Live Tutor

The concepts behind computerized intervention programs for reading and math, for example, are very similar to live tutoring programs. Your child is evaluated on his strengths and weaknesses and is given tailored learning to reinforce the weak areas identified.

Your child’s teacher is more actively involved with the learning process with a computerized RTI. She can offer support, instruction and guidance in real time. Your child progresses quickly in a familiar and comfortable learning environment.

Summary

Today’s working world is highly competitive. Not only are more jobs available in the high-technology fields than even a decade ago, but job trends lean heavily toward even more increases in the future. Providing your child a solid foundation in mathematics and other areas can only improve the child’s future possibilities. Help your child learn now when his mind is easy to teach. Enroll him in extra English courses or utilize math intervention strategies as soon as possible when continued difficulties arise. Clear the learning path of obstacles while the problems are easily corrected and help pave the way to a more secure future.

Jim Wheelin writes about many different math intervention programs and other educational topics for parents and kids. Jim is always keeping an eye out for the latest in math technology, games and other educational resources including http://www.dreambox.com/math-intervention .

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So what do you think? Is this better than having a personal tutor?